Malformaciones congénitas en Chile.: Un problema emergente (período 1995-1999)
Background: The Latin American collaborative study of congenital malformations (ECLAMC) is a surveillance program designed to monitor the frequency of congenital malformations and detect abrupt changes in their frequency, look for the cause of such change and implement primary prevention measures. Aim: To construct a secular trend curve with the frequency of congenital malformations in Chile. Material and methods: Using the ECLAMC protocol, every malformed newborn or stillbirth, weighting more than 500 g at birth is registered using a standard protocol, and the next non malformed child of the same sex born in the same hospital is assigned as control. Using the gathered data, secular trend curves of congenital malformations were constructed. Results: Between 1982 and 1999, there is a secular tendency in the rate of congenital malformations and maternal age, with a correlation coefficient of 0.8 and slope of 13.5 (p<0.05). The rates of congenital malformations at the moment of birth are higher at the University of Chile Clinical Hospital than in the rest of Chilean hospitals and other Latin American Hospitals. Anencephalia is a defect with a high frequency in Concepción and spina bifida has a high frequency in Rancagua, Viña del Mar, Concepción and Valdivia. There is an impressive increase in malformations dependent on prenatal diagnosis such as kidney agenesis, polycystic kidney and diaphragmatic hernia. Conclusions: Congenital malformations are having an increasing importance as causes of morbidity or mortality in the newborn. (Rev Méd Chile 2001; 129: 895-904).