Uredospore germination of Hemileia vastatrix and its inhibition by the effect of plant extracts in vitro
Morales-Antonio, Miguel A.
Santiago-Martínez, Gisela M.
Coffee leaf rust, caused by Hemileia vastatrix, is the most important disease of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in Mexico. It causes production losses of up to 40% and leads to the use of considerable volumes of synthetic fungicides. The main goals of this research were to identify the temperature, pH, incubation time, and luminosity required for in vitro germination of H. vastatrix uredospores and to evaluate the effect of plant extracts on their germination. Uredospores from coffee plants (var. Caturra) grown in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, were collected and subjected to treatments consisting of combined levels of T°, pH, and incubation time. The treatments were evaluated in darkness and under low-intensity white light (15 W). Uredospore germination occurred in the absence and presence of light. The highest percentage of uredospore germination was 44.95%, which occurred at pH 5.7, between 18 and 24 °C, and with an incubation time of 24 h. The effect of 30 plant extracts was evaluated in terms of inhibition of uredospore germination. The acetone and ethanol extracts of Tribulus terrestris, Datura ferox, Mansoa alliacea, Ricinus communis, and Acacia farnesiana inhibited 100% of uredospore germination. Thus, plant extracts may contribute to the integrated disease management of coffee leaf rust.