ECOLOGICAL BIOGEOGRAPHY: A REVIEW WITH EMPHASIS ON CONSERVATION AND THE NEUTRAL MODEL BIOGEOGRAFIA ECOLOGICA: REVISION CON ENFASIS EN CONSERVACION Y EL "MODELO NEUTRAL"
Ecological biogeography studies the factors that define the spatial distribution of species in the present time. This review summarises recent contributions on ecological biogeography. Most recent articles report environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and salinity as key elements in the ecological biogeography of many species (followed by other organisms and genetic characteristics). Molecular data indicate that some "unexplainable" ranges are artifacts caused by taxonomic misidentification (several species erroneously classified as a single species). Island biogeography theory is often adequate for conservation management, and the new neutral model of ecological biogeography does not fit all species on which it has been tested. Global warming leads to range expansions, dispersal events, and new invasions. Until now, most experimental work has been done on temperate ecosystems. In the 21st century, tropical biogeographers should do landmark contributions by doing field, laboratory and simulation experiments about species ranges and community biogeography.