Physical seed treatment techniques may influence stand establishment and yield of wheat in delayed cropping
Good crop establishment and its effect on productivity is one of the major challenges in crop production. To investigate the effect of seed priming by physical techniques on stand establishment and yield of delayed wheat sowing, two experiments were conducted in Tabriz, Iran. Wheat seeds were treated with ultrasound, laser, magnetic field, gamma and beta irradiation for 3.5 and 5 min. and were sown on 17 April and 2 May, 2013-2014. All the seed priming treatments improved the coefficient of uniformity of emergence compared to non-primed seeds. Seedling vigor index responded positively and significantly to seed priming agents. There was no significant difference among laser, gamma and beta irradiations with respect to time from sowing to harvesting. Seeds primed by magnetic fields, ultrasonic waves and shorter exposure time to gamma irradiation had high chlorophyll in leaves. There was a non-significant difference between seed yields from sowing dates of 17 April and 2 May, and the yield ranged from 334 g m-2 average in the control, laser, beta irradiations and longer exposure time to gamma, up to 480.1 g m-2 in other treatments. Seed priming by magnetic fields, ultrasonic waves and shorter exposure time to gamma irradiation can be effectively used to improve crop performance and yield, especially in late-sown plants.