The Suspensory Apparatus and Digital Flexor Muscles of the Llama (Lama glama) 2: The Pelvic Limb
This paper provides data (text and illustrations) about the digital flexor muscles of the pelvic limb and the / metatarsophalangeal joint, evaluating the suspensory (support) apparatus and weight bearing structures. Similar to the above mentioned paper, a literature search provided incomplete information about these anatomical structures. As in the thoracic limb, unique anatomically variations exist in the pelvic limb of the llama. The caudal tibial muscle is fused with the lateral head of the deep digital flexor muscle (DDF), and the soleus muscle is missing. A symmetrical unexpected lumbricalis pedis muscle was found; the tendons are fusing with the axial branches of the lateral tendon of the long digital extensor muscle. A quadratus plantae muscle, also unexpected is present on the medial aspect of the tarsal región. The superficial digital flexor muscle (SDF) resembles that of the domestic ruminants. The metacarpo/ metatarsophalangeal joints, referred to as the fetlock joints (FJ) are very different from those of the domestic ruminants. Particular structures were found and they will be described and illustrated in the text. The anatomy of the suspensory (support) apparatus in the pelvic limb is evaluated in this paper.