Ameloblastoma: Report of Two Cases and a Brief Literature Review
Matos,Bruno Henrique Figueiredo
Ameloblastoma is an uncommon odontogenic neoplasm that accounts for approximately 10% of all tumors originating from gnathic bones. Although its growth is localized, the tumor can also be infiltrative and persistent; however, its behavior is usually benign. The mandible is the most commonly affected site, and ameloblastoma is most frequently diagnosed between the fourth and fifth decades of life. In addition to a brief review of the literature, the present study discusses the clinical, imaging, histopathological and prognostic characteristics of these tumors by presenting two case reports. In these cases, the patients were aged 40 and 66 years, of different sexes and ethnicities and presented with the same complaint regarding localized and asymptomatic swelling. Both cases occurred in the posterior region (but on opposite sides) of the mandible. The patients were initially subjected to clinical examination and imaging of the face, followed by incisional biopsy to confirm (in both cases) the diagnosis of multicystic intraosseous ameloblastoma with a plexiform pattern. Both patients were treated by wide resection of the lesion (with safety margins), and only one patient experienced tumor recurrence. After 42 and 68 months of follow-up, the patients are still alive and show no signs of recurrence. Clinical and imaging findings aid in the differential diagnosis of ameloblastomas; however, histopathological evaluation is essential for its definitive diagnosis. Early diagnosis and precise detection of the borders to provide adequate safety margins during the surgical resection of the tumor are necessary to achieve successful treatment and recurrence-free survival for solid ameloblastomas.