Sucralose is a non-nutritive artificial sweetener, 600 times sweeter than sucrose, and is very stable at high temperatures, among other characteristics. It was approved by the FDA, in 1999, to be utilized in foods, beverages, pharmaceutical products, diets and vitamin supplements. Studies suggest a diffusion, through the placental barrier, of small doses of sucralose and its metabolites. Its hydrolysis products (4-CG e 1,6-DCF) are more rapidly absorbed than sucralose: 4-CG is excreted intact in the urine, and 1,6-DCF undergoes reduction with elimination by the urine or rapid conjugation with glutathione. Various organs can be affected by ingestión of high doses of sucralose. As a result of the rise in global consumption of sweeteners and light- or diet-type products, studies are necessary to evaluate the action of this substance in the human species. The present study aims to accomplish a review of the literature that involves its indications of use, pharmacodynamics as well as the carcinogenic, teratogenic, neurotoxic, and nephrotoxic potentials of sucralose.