Carbonated Water and Necro-Apoptotic Cell Death in Chicken Embrio Low Limb
Carbonated water is a fundamental part of many drinks and its effects have been studied in many pathological situations. However, cells and tissue damage as a consequence of carbonated water has not been the subject of extensive research. We assessed the short-term effects of soda on in vitro Hanging-drop culture of myoblasts and ex vivo lower limb of 8-day-old chicken embryo skeletal muscle tissue. Several groupswerendesigned: a) Control (Con-tyr), b) Carbonated water (Car), c) Coffe (Caf), and d) Cola beverage (Glu). The samples were observed with light microscopy and digital imaging analysis was performed. The ultra-structure of control and treated tissue were observed with electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry techniques, such as terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick- end labeling (TUNEL), TACTS Blue Label (TdT Kits) of R&D Systems were used. The myoblasts monolayers treated with soda showed plenty of eosinophilics elements. The eosinophily corresponds to higher percentage of cell death. The muscular tissue of the low limb treated with carbonated water (Car) showed calcium phosphate and collagen decreases, 53,86% and 82,95% respectively and enlarged nuclei of a higher size, with an evident loss of the parallel arrangement and fragmented nuclei. Compared to control samples, the muscular disorganization was accompanied by a positive reaction of the apoptotic bodies on TACS, also a positive reaction to ApopTacg and another positive reaction for the metalloproteases in the inter fibrillar cartilage matrix. These changes were not significant in Tyrode's solution controls, Coffee and Cola beverage groups. The morphological outcome can be apoptosis, necrosis or a mixed phenotype, suggesting that the carbonated water toxic effect might be related to these cell death processes. Further research, exploring biochemical factors will be required to elucidate necro-apoptotic cell death induced by carbonated water.