Resistencia a los antimicrobianos en agentes causantes de infección del tracto urinario en 11 hospitales chilenos.: Proyecto PRONARES
Díaz J,María Cristina
Background: The computer program WHONET generates a common database to analyze local or general antimicrobial resistance of bacteria. A surveillance of agents causing urinary tract infections in Chile has been performed using this program. Aim: To report the results after 12 months of urinary tract infection agent surveillance. Material and methods: Since November, 1997, a surveillance of in vitro antimicrobial resistance, using agar diffusion techniques, has been performed in 20 to 40 bacterial strains per month, isolated from 11 hospitals in the country. Results have been analyzed using WHONET program. Results: In first 12 months, 3144 strains, 1625 coming from outpatients, have been studied. Seventy four percent of isolated strains were E coli, 19% were other enterobacteria, 4.1% were non fermenting bacilli and 2.1% were Gram (+) cocci. Sixty five percent of E coli strains were resistant to ampicillin, 11% to cefazolin, 2.5% to cefuroxime, 19% to ceftriaxone, 9% to ceftazidime, 4.2% to gentamicin 1.3% to amikacin, 5.6% to ciprofloxacin, 8.4% to grepafloxacin, 4.3% to nitrofurantoin and 43% to trimeproprim/sulphamethoxazole. Eighty two percent of other enterobacteria strains were resistant to ampicillin, 45.5% to cefazolin, 33.5% to cefuroxime, 26.6% to ceftriaxone, 21.5% to ceftazidime, 30.3% to gentamicin 17.2% to amikacin, 21% to ciprofloxacin, 16.3% to grepafloxacin, 48.2% to nitrofurantoin and 44.6% to trimeproprim/sulphamethoxazole. There were differences in betalactamic resistance among hospitals. Conclusions: Noteworthy is the high resistance rates to third generation cephalosporins, evidenced when the new cutoff values for E coli and Klebsiella spp are used. This national surveillance provides updated information on antimicrobial resistance of agents causing urinary tract infections.