Quantitation of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins in Chilean Mussel using pyrenyldiazomethane as fluorescent labeling reagent
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is a gastrointestinal disease caused by lipid soluble polyether toxins produced by dinoflagellates and accumulated in shellfish. Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning is a worldwide threat to public health and the shellfish industry. To date, only four lipid soluble polyethers have been known as diarrhetic shellfish toxins. Among them, Okadaic acid (OA), Dinophysistoxin 1 (DTX-1, 35-methyl OA), Dinophysistoxin 2 (DTX-2, OA isomers) and Dinophysistoxin 3 (DTX-3, 7-O-acyl-35-methyl OA), all of which have free carboxilic groups. To perform quantitative analysis of DSP toxins in shellfish samples is a requirement, because DSP toxins are endemic in the Chilean mollusks of the southern regions, and although human symptoms of DSP appear relatively mild in comparison with the Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), the necessity of monitoring the chronic effects of continued uptake of low doses of DSP toxins more closely is imperative, since DSP toxins have been described as potent tumor promoters. This paper shows the synthesis pathway of a chromophore, 1-pyrenyldiazomethane (PDAM), a fluorescent labeling reagent for determination of carboxilic acids, using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence on-line detection . This procedure was developed in order to have a quantitative method for DSP toxins analysis that would be useful for health public services and private shellfish industries. The features of this labeling reagent are compared against ADAM and used for quantitative analysis of DSP toxins in Chilean mussels and cultured dinoflagellates samples.