Expression of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in hen ovary
Abstract Background: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), discovered initially by via differential display RT-PCR analysis of brains of rats administered cocaine, is expressed mainly in central nervous system or neuronal origin cells, and is involved in a wide range of behaviors, such as regulation of food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction. The hens egg-laying rate mainly depends on the developmental status of follicles, expression of CART have not been identified from hen follicles, the regulatory mechanisms of CART biological activities are still unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize the mRNA expression of CART in hen follicular granulosa cells and determine CART peptide localization and regulatory role during follicular development. Methods: Small white follicles (1–2 mm in diameter) were treated for RNA isolation; Small white follicles (1–2 mm in diameter) and large white follicles (4–6 mm in diameter) were treated for immunohistochemical localization and large white follicles (4–6 mm in diameter), small yellow follicles (6–8 mm in diameter), large yellow follicles (9–12 mm in diameter), mature follicles (F5, F4, F3, F2, F1, >12 mm in diameter) were treated for RNA isolation and Real time PCR. Results: The results showed that full length of the CDS of hen CART was 336 bp encoding a 111 amino acid polypeptide. In the hen ovary, CART peptide was primarily localized to the theca layer, but not all, the oocyte and granulosa layer, with diffused, weaker staining than relative to the theca cell layer. Further, amount of CART mRNA was more (P < 0.05) in granulosa cells of 6–8 mm follicles compared with that in granulosa cells of other follicles. However, CART mRNA amount was greater in theca cells of 4–6 mm follicles relative to follicles of other sizes (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Results suggest that CART could play a potential role in developmental regulation of chicken follicles.