Identification of SSR markers using soybean (Glycine max) ESTs from globular stage embryos
Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), in expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide an opportunity for low cost SSR development. We looked for EST-SSRs in 403,511 ESTs (generated by 454 sequencing and representing 70,654 contigs and 52,082 singletons) from soybean globular stage embryos. Among 122,736 unique ESTs, 3,729 contained one or more SSRs. In total, 3,989 SSRs were identified including 304 mono, 1,374 di, 2,208 tri, 70 tetra, 13 penta and 20 hexanucleotide SSRs. Thirty three EST-SSRs were selected for primer design and polymorphism analysis using twenty soybean cultivars and one wild-type soybean. Successful amplification was obtained using 21 of these primer pairs, 11 of which detected polymorphisms in these soybean cultivars. These results demonstrated that 454 high throughput sequencing is a powerful tool for molecular marker development. From the 3,989 identified SSRs we expect to obtain a large number of makers with polymorphism among different soybean cultivars, which would be useful for analysis of genetic diversity and maker assisted selection in the soybean breeding programs.