Evaluation of DMI fungicides against species of Diplodia and Neofusicoccum associated with Botryosphaeria canker of grapevine
The Botryosphaeriaceae species have been widely studied and are considered a serious problem to the production of grapes worldwide. To aid in the development of control strategies for these fungi, in vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of demethylation inhibiting (DMI) fungicides against Diplodia seriata, D. mutila, Neofusicoccum australe and N. parvum isolated from grapevine (Vitis vinifera). Fungicidal effectiveness was evaluated over a range of increasing concentrations using measurements of both the inhibition of conidial germination and the effects on mycelial growth. The effective concentrations (EC) necessary to inhibit conidial germination and mycelial growth by 50% (EC50) and 90% (EC90) were estimated by linear regression analysis between x = log10 of the fungicidal concentration and y = the Probit value of the inhibition percentage. The results demonstrate that tebuconazole, myclobutanil, prochloraz and prochloraz plus epoxiconazole exhibit considerable in vitro activity against D. mutila, D. seriata, N. australe and N. parvum. These DMI compounds were able to arrest conidial germination and inhibit mycelial growth. The EC50 values obtained for conidial germination were generally higher than the EC50 values obtained for mycelial growth, suggesting that mycelia are more sensitive to the DMI compounds than are conidia. However, the effectiveness of these DMI compounds in the vineyard must be studied before any final conclusions can be reached.