Side effects of the natural pesticide Spinosad (GF-120 Formulation) on Eretmocerus paulistus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a parasitoid of the whitefly Aleurothrixus floccosus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), under laboratory conditions
V. Tello, L. Díaz, and M. Sánchez. 2013. Side effects of the natural pesticide Spinosad (GF-120 Formulation) on Eretmocerus paulistus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a parasitoid of the whitefly Aleurothrixus floccosus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), under laboratory conditions. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(2):407-417. The side effects of the insecticide GF-120 NF 0.02 Naturalyte CB® were evaluated on adults of Eretmocerus paulistus Hempel, a parasitoid of Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell) in citrus orchards of northern Chile. LC50 and LC90 were determined by applying the insecticide using a Potter tower in decreasing doses from 0.96 to 0.1 mg a.i. L-1 (corresponding to 1% to 0.1% of the recommended dose, respectively). After 24 h of exposure, the results were fitted to a probit model, and the LC50 and LC90 were estimated at 0.21 and 0.79 mg a.i. L-1, respectively. In feeding tests and evaluation of the toxic effect of dry residues of GF-120, it was determined that a high percentage of mortality (100%) was obtained using a combination of 24.0 mg a.i. L-1 x residues at 1 hour drying time. Residues at 96 h (4 days) drying time with concentrations of 38.4 or 24.0 mg a.i. L-1 caused mortalities over 60%. According to the classification of the IOBC (International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants) the manufacturer's recommended concentration of 96 mg a.i. L-1 was level 4, which is harmful (> 99%), as GF-120 concentrations can range from 0.77 to 72 mg a.i. L-1. The GF-120 residues applied on inert surfaces were harmful to E. paulistus with a high mortality rate under laboratory conditions. Field studies are needed to validate these results by evaluating parasitoid populations in insecticide-treated and untreated areas.