Resistance assessment of grapevine rootstocks used in Chile to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne ethiopica, M. hapla, and M. javanica
The rootstocks 1103 P, 101-14, K 5BB, SO4, and 3309 were assessed to determine their resistance to the three common Meloidogyne species present in Chilean vineyards, M. ethiopica, the most frequent species, M. hapla and M. javanica. Their response was compared to three ungrafted cultivars, Thompson Seedless, Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. To perform this study, two month-old plants produced from cuttings were inoculated with 5,000 eggs per 3-L pots, filled with steamed substrate and kept in a glasshouse covered with a black mesh to intercept 30% of sun light and avoid heating of the substrates. After a growth period of six months, plants were removed from the pots, and resistance was determined by measuring root weights, the number of galls and eggs per g of root, and second stage juveniles per 250 cm³ of soil. Results showed that the five rootstocks were resistant to the parasitism of the three Meloidogyne species, since their reproduction was limited and differed from two of the cultivars. Chardonnay was the most susceptible cultivar, mainly to the high level of parasitism by M. ethiopica, while Pinot Noir was moderately susceptible and Thompson Seedless showed the lowest susceptibility.