Nitrogen and potassium in production, nutrition and water use efficiency in wheat plants
Carvalho,Janaina M. G
Araújo da Silva,Tonny J.
J. M. G. Carvalho, E.M. Bonfim-Silva, T.J.A. Silva, Helon H.F. Sousa, S.L. Guimarães, and A.B. Pacheco. 2016. Nitrogen and potassium in production, nutrition and water use efficiency in wheat plants. Cien. Inv. Agr. 43(3):442-451. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a cereal used in food and feed for its nutritional properties. For nitrogen and potassium management, efficient use of water is required for greater availability and transportation of these nutrients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of combinations of nitrogen and potassium doses in production, nutrition and water use efficiency in wheat. The experiment was held in a greenhouse with 8-dm³ pots using Oxisol collected at a depth of 0-0.2 m under Cerrado vegetation. Base saturation was raised to 60%. The experimental design was a randomized block in a 5x5 factorial arrangement with five doses of nitrogen (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg dm-3) and potassium (0, 90, 180, 270, 360 mg dm-3) with four replications. Soil moisture was maintained by an auto-irrigation system (3 kPa pressure). The experiment was collected at 95 days after plant emergence. We evaluated the dry mass of ears, shoots and roots, the total dry matter, nitrogen and potassium in grains, and the consumption and efficiency in water use. An analysis of variance and regression test at 5% probability was conducted using SAS statistical software (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina). The nitrogen and potassium alone increased the dry mass of ears by 31.47% and 20.91%, respectively. There was an interaction of nutrients on the dry mass of the shoots and the total dry matter. Potassium increases the concentration of nitrogen. Nitrogen and potassium promote gains in production, nutrition and water use efficiency.