Aymara speakers are intrusive into the Southern Peruvian Coast and Northern Chilean coast during Tiwanaku Period V, with the establishment of mitmaquna settlements. Trade can be dated much earlier. These developments influenced the development of the altiplano-coast interrelations in the Late Period (AD 1000-1450). However the Southern Bolivian Altiplano, Northwest Argentine puna and Jujuy area, and the Chilean Region II polities were much more powerful and independent than we usually have credited them with being.
Instituto de Arqueología y Antropología, Universidad Católica del Norte.