Subtipos "no clásicos" de diabetes mellitus
García de los Ríos A,Manuel
Background: Some adult, obese and diabetic patients, initiate their disease with a severe diabetic ketoacidosis without a precipitating factor and do not require insulin thereafter. These patients are classified as having a "non classical" diabetes mellitus. Aim: To study the clinical, immunological, genetic and metabolic features of patients with non classical diabetes mellitus. Patients and methods: Ten patients (9 men, aged 45±12 years old) with non classical diabetes mellitus were studied. Anti islet and anti glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (ICA and anti GAD), HLA DQ a arginine 52 and non aspartic ß57 were measured. Insulin secretion was measured by C peptide after glucagon injection and with the minimal model of Bergman. The latter model was also used to determine insulin sensitivity. Results: Three patients were immunologically classified as type 1, since they had positive ICA or antiGAD antibodies and type 1 genetics (neutral or susceptible HLA DQ a and ß). They had insulin secretion after glucagon stimulus (C peptide ranging from 2.2 to 7.5 pmol/ml), but an almost absent response to a glucose load. They were also insulin resistant (a sensitivity index ranging from 0.05 to 1.67 x 10-4 min/µU x ml). These three cases could be categorized as latent type 1. The other seven patients were ICA negative and antiGAD negative. Five had a susceptible HLA genotype for type 1 diabetes and two were neutral. All had insulin secretion after glucagon stimulation and a variable response to glucose. Six were insulin resistant (sensitivity index ranging from 0.32 to 1.29 x 10-4 min/µU x ml). One patient was insulin sensitive (sensitivity index of 3.83 x 10-4 min/µU x ml). Therefore all these patients were classified as type two diabetics with an atypical debut. Conclusions: Not all diabetics presenting with a severe diabetic ketoacidosis are type I. Among these, there are subjects with a latent type 1 diabetes or with an atypical type 2 diabetes (Rev Med Chile 2001; 129: 853-60).
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