Fungi that cause rot in bunches of grape identified in adult fruit flies (Anastrepha fraterculus) (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is the main species of frugivorous insect that damages berries of table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) in Southern Brazil. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungi associated with bunch rot present in the body of adults of A. fraterculus collected in a commercial vineyard. From January to February 2011, adults of A. fraterculus were collected from a commercial vineyard of green grapes using adapted McPhail traps. In laboratory, flies bodies were divided into four parts (head, legs, wings, and ovipositor) in Petri dishes with PDA medium to evaluate microorganisms associated. Six adult females of A. fraterculus collected in the field were also analyzed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to identify spores of fungi. Phytopathogenic microorganisms were found in all sectioned parts. Fungal spores were recorded adhered to the body of adult females of A. fraterculus. The main species of fungi found in the body parts of A. fraterculus were Cladosporium spp. (20.2% of the obtained colonies), Botrytis cinerea Pers. (12.9%), Colletotrichum spp. (10.1%), Penicillium spp. (10.1%), Fusarium spp. (7.7%), followed by Rhizopus spp., Trichoderma spp. and Aspergillus spp., suggesting that the insect can serve as a mechanical vector of spores increasing damage in the vineyards.