Response of some chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes to Orobanche foetida Poir. parasitism
In Tunisia, broomrape (Orobanche foetida Poir.) causes major drawbacks especially in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) suffers little damage compared to faba bean, but with the winter sowing chickpea cultivars, broomrape might become a serious problem for chickpea cultivation. The development of resistant cultivars remains the most efficient way to solve this problem. The behavior of six chickpea genotypes to O. foetida was studied under field natural infestation and artificial inoculation in pots and petri dishes in greenhouse conditions. During the cropping seasons 2010-2011 and 2012-2013 the level of infection was very low. The number of emerged parasites per host plant varied from 0.18 to 0.43 and the incidence from 6.5% to 23%. Among the six tested genotypes, G1, G2, and G4 showed partial resistance to O. foetida with low number and dry weight of emerged parasite and high grain yield compared to the other genotypes, although no significant differences were recorded. In pot experiments, the number and total dry weight of broomrape per plant were lower for G1 and G2 genotypes than the other genotypes. Parasitism does not affect significantly the shoot dry weight and number of pods of these genotypes. The total chlorophyll content was significantly reduced under infestation in all genotypes. In Petri dishes experiments, results showed that percent germination of O. foetida seeds varied from 49% to 65% and does not play a role in the resistance of chickpea genotypes. In contrast, broomrape attachment was lower and slower for the genotypes G1, G2, and G4 than the other genotypes. Resistance in chickpea genotypes was characterized by few parasite attachments on roots and a limited growth of established tubercles. No necrosis of attached tubercles was observed in the different experiments.