Rock oyster Striostrea prismatica (Gray, 1825): biology, exploitation and conservation
ABSTRACT Oyster or rock oyster (Striostrea prismática) is a bivalve mollusk highly appreciated among traditional seafood in several Latin American countries. Uncontrolled capture and lack of techniques for its culture, threaten their growth and conservation, as a decrease in its population has been reported. This review highlights critical aspects of its biology, ecology, catching activity and potential use in aquaculture. Its presence is registered as a fossil, and its identification is crucial because of its similarity to other species of ostreids. The population structure and its abundance in natural banks are associated with depth, substrate, dynamics of exposure and local environmental conditions. The reproductive activity and gametogenesis vary from an annual increase to continuous reproduction related to its location latitude. The size at first maturity is similar in both sexes and achieves about nine cm in less than a year. In culture experiments, diets in breeding stocks have been studied, resulting in trochophore larvae and “D” larvae, at 12 and 24 h after fertilization. Shell fixation has been achieved in natural collectors, but their culture has not been developed yet. The species is used as an indicator of pollution, associated with microalgae causing harmful outcrops. There are no precise records of its catch, as it is reported in combination with other ostreids species. For its conservation and sustainable exploitation, it is necessary to increase research on its biology to implement management programs and developing culture techniques.