Development of enriched Artemia and Moina in larviculture of fish and crustaceans: a review
Joshua, Wizilla Janti
Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh
Md Yusoff, Fatimah
Inconsistencies in the nutritional values of live food such as Artemia and Moina are well-known issues. The enrichment of live food is necessary to obtain the optimum nutrients needed for the growth, survival, and immune competence of fish and crustaceans' larvae. The enhanced growth and survival of fish and crustaceans' larvae are vital to continuous aquaculture production. However, enriched live food could be species-specific as various aquatic larval species may respond differently to the enrichment diets. The enrichment of Artemia and Moina as the "bags of nutrients" has been widely studied and involved various enrichment diets such as commercial diets containing essential fatty acids, highly unsaturated fatty acids, and vitamin C. The use of natural enrichment diets such as yeast, microalgae, and herbal extract, including the common name Chinese chaste tree leaf (Vitex negundo), is becoming popular in aquaculture nutritional development. These natural enrichment diets are more economical and environmentally friendly than commercial diets. The compositions of Artemia and Moina are both affected by the enrichment diets that they consumed, hence directly affecting the growth of the larvae that fed on them. Hence, this review highlights the development of enriched Artemia and Moina and their effects on the growth performance and the immune competence of fish and crustaceans' larvae.