Effects of bacilli, molasses, and reducing feeding rate on biofloc formation, growth, and gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei cultured with zero water exchange
Flores-Miranda,María del Carmen
ABSTRACT The effects of reducing feeding rate and molasses on water quality, growth, and gene expression of Litopenaeus vannamei were evaluated in a super intensive system with zero water exchange. A bioassay of 35 days (0,75 ± 0,22 g, 36 shrimp tank-1, 450 shrimp m-3) with treatments in triplicate was performed: I) 100% commercial feed (control group) with water exchange; II) 100% commercial feed without water exchange; III) 100% commercial feed + Bacillus licheniformis BCR 4-3 + molasses without water exchange; IV) 90% commercial feed + B. licheniformis BCR 4-3 + molasses without water exchange, and V) 80% commercial feed + B. licheniformis BCR 4-3 + molasses without water exchange. Shrimp survival, weight, nitrogenous wastes, settleable solids (SS), and the relative expression (RT-qPCR) of stress and digestive genes were determined. Shrimp survival was 100% in all treatments. The reduced diet, bioflocs, and bacilli did not affect shrimp growth. The culture conditions reduced nitrogenous wastes and modulated mRNA expression of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and heat shock protein 70. Reduced feed ration can help to maintain water quality and lower costs in intensive shrimp cultures with bioflocs.